According to last census 2010 of the National Statistics Office (NSO) (as of: May 01, 2010), the municipality of Hilongos has a total population of about 56 803 inhabitants. This Hilongos brings in the upper middle class of all cities in Leyte. Because of the high unemployment rate many well-educated individuals are leaving the city and migrate to the urban centers in Leyte, Ormoc, Tacloban and Maasin, or look the same to Cebu City and Manila, in order to ensure the support of their family in Hilongos. A large number of qualified staff is recruited from various employment agencies for a deployment in foreign countries. Regrettably good skilled personnel of the city are thinned out.

Further to observe is, that the sparely population of the high plains of the hinterland want to participate as well of the economic progress of the city and is looking for a blue-collar employee in the densely populated districts of the city core.

The majority of the population is composed of farmers and fishermen, whose roots are found here in Leyte, Cebu or Bohol, thus from the Visayas. They are proverbial known for their kindness, hard work and thrift.

The elderly generation speaks the here in the south of Leyte known dialect Binisaya or Cebuano. The language of the young generation is heavily laced with Anglicisms. As an official language there is predominantly English or in addition Tagalog. It is amazing how far and deep the English language has won the catchment in the life of this region.

About 85% of the population is strict adherents of the Roman Catholic Church. Some of them are still influenced by their traditional beliefs and superstitions. Some farmers continue to follow their pre-Hispanic and traditional conservative conviction before spreading the seed on the fields to offer up gifts and sacrifices. Sometimes chickens or pigs are ritually sacrificed to ensure that the specter (ghosts) or elemental spirits of the land to be conciliatory to obtain a good harvest.

With a visible minority of 5%, as measured by the number of inhabitants, the Muslim religious community is a growing confraternity in recent years. You can find the one or the other mosque in the city and can notice the whoop of the Moazzin (prayer caller), which calls up at 18:00 in the inner city with his prayer Adhan (Azzan) to praise the Islamic faithful for a prayer.

Most of them are Maranaos and come predominantly from the south of the Philippines (Mindanoa - Mindoro) or from several neighboring communities to engage here for better job opportunities. Ethnically and racially they can not be distinguished from other citizens, but they clearly distance themselves from the general public.

A significant minority are the Chinese. They inhabit the island of Leyte for several centuries, and built right from the start trading relationships and lasting arrangements.

Many of those who wear the Chinese blood in them, have been married for generations with Filipinos and among the influential business and salespeople affecting the fortunes of the city. However, they retain up to these days their own identity in their own communities and the nature of their superiority.

In general, rice and corn scattered the staple food here in the province. The population living in the mountains, however, prefer root crops, which is plenty to be found on the plateaus. The local delicacies include Empanada, Bocarillo, Suman, Bibingka, Puso, Ampaw, Biko, Starhoy, Bibingka, Salvatore Round, Papaya Salad and a special dish, the Kinilaw. A real Filipino dish as it can’t be better, which is culinary composed of raw fish cut into cubes, marinated in Bahalina, (a coconut vinegar) or calamansi (lemon) juice, garlic, onions, ginger, tomatoes and peppers, sometimes enriches and refined with fried or grilled thin pieces of pork or bacon.